sūryair dvādaśabhiḥ paraṁ muraripuḥ śītārta ugrātapair
bhakti-prema-bharair udāra-caritaḥ śrīmān mudā sevitaḥ
yatra strī-puruṣaiḥ kvaṇat-paśu-kulair āveṣṭito rājate
snehair dvādaśa-sūrya-nāma tad idaṁ tīrthaṁ sadā saṁśraye
Stavāmṛta Kaṇā Vyākhyā: In this verse Raghunath Das Goswami praises the Dwadasaditya Tirtha. When Sri Krishna came out of the Kaliya lake after swimming in it for a long time, he felt very cold and began to shiver. He is udāra-carita, which means that he is always engaged in human-like pastimes. While subduing the Kaliya snake Krishna certainly displayed great prowess in front of the Vrajavasis, but this prowess appeared as very sweet and relishable to them. This is the nature of the sweet conception.
Srila Vishwanath Chakravartipada defines this sweetness in his Rāga-vartma-candrikā (2.5):
“When one understand that Krishna is God, but still does not result in feelings of heart-trembling reverence, but rather fixes one in a friendly mood towards Him, thinking: “He is my son, he is my friend, he is my lover!”, then it is called mādhurya jñāna (a sweet conception).” (īśvaro’yam ity anusandhāne’pi hṛt-kampa-janaka-sambhrama-gandhasyānudgamāt svīya-bhāvasyātisthairyam eva yad utpādayati, tan mādhurya-jñānam.)
In the material world it is also seen that when her son becomes a king, it does not weaken the mother’s conception of him as her child, but rather strengthens her maternal love. (yathā prākṛtyā api mātuḥ putrasya pṛthvīśvaratve sati tat-putra-bhāvaḥ sphīta evābhavati, Ibid).
The Lord assumes a mood according to the way in which the devotee loves him, and hence he reveals his sweet pastimes according to the sweet conception the Vraja-devotees have of him.
“Even while killing a powerful witch like Putana, Krishna acted just like a human child by sucking her breast. His act of kicking over a huge and strong cart and destroying it was accomplished with the tender feet of a three-month-old baby that was lying down, and during the dāma-bandhana-līlā, even though Mother Yashoda could find no means to bind him up because even the longest rope was always two fingers too short, still Sri Krishna was afraid of her. And though he bewildered Lord Brahmā and Baladeva (during the Brahma-vimohana-līlā) and showed his omniscience, at the same time he manifested his sweet pastimes of herding the calves.” (yathā pūtanā-prāṇa-hāritve’pi stana-cūṣaṇa-lakṣaṇa-nara-bāla-līlatvam eva. mahā-kaṭhora-śakaṭa-sphoṭane’py atisukumāra-caraṇa-traimāsikyottāna-śāyi-bāla-līlatvam. mahā-dīrgha-dāmāśakya-bandhatve’pi mātṛ-bhīti-vaiklavyam. brahma-baladevādi-mohane’pi sarvajñatve’pi vatsa-cāraṇa-līlatvam (Rāga-vartma-candrikā 3)
Similarly, during the Kaliya-damana-līlā Krishna’s tender form engaged in a sweet dance while smashing the 100 hoods of the greatly poisonous snake Kaliya. When Krishna came out of the lake after defeating the snake, his whole body shivered of cold from having being in the water for so long. At that time the twelve suns [one for each month of the year] rose near the Kaliya-lake with great loving devotion and most blissfully began to protect Sri Krishna from the cold with their hot rays. Hence this place is called Dvādaśāditya Tīrtha.
In the Ādi Varāha Purāṇa it is written:
surya-tīrthe naraḥ snāto dṛṣṭādityān vasundhare
āditya bhuvanaṁ prāpya kṛta-kṛtyaḥ sa modate
āditye’hani saṁkrāntāv-asmin tīrthe vasundhare
manasābhīpsitaṁ kāmaṁ prāpnuvanti na saṁśayaḥ
“O Bhumi Devi! A person who bathes in Surya Tīrtha and sees the Sun God there attains his abode and will be blessed with the topmost bliss. A person who bathes here on Sundays and on Saṅkranti days will be blessed with the fulfillment of all his desires. Of this there is no doubt.”
In the Sūrya-Purāṇa it is seen:
dvādaśāditya tīrthākhyaṁ tīrthaṁ tad-anupāvanam
tasya darśana mātreṇa nṛnām agho vinaśyati.
“This Dvādaśāditya Tīrtha is most pure. Anyone who sees it is freed from all sins.”
When Sri Krishna accepted the service of the twelve suns his mother, father and all other Vrajavasis surrounded him, making a lot of noise, while at the same time the cows filled the air with their bellowing. Raghunath Das Goswami says: “I always seek the shelter of this Dwadasaditya Tīrtha.”
udāra caritra yāra, muraripu khyāti tāra, parameśvara boli gāya yāre
naralīlā anurūpe, śīte tāra aṅga kāṁpe, līlā bhaṅgi ati camatkāre
“Muraripu, who is glorified as being the Supreme Lord, actually performs very sweet pastimes. According to these most astonishing human-like pastimes his whole body shivered of the cold.”
yathā strī puruṣa-gaṇe, śabdāyamāna paśugaṇe, veṣṭanete āchena govinda
dvādaśa sūrya ātapere, sevā kore śrī aṅgete, prema bhare pulakita aṅga
“Here Govinda shines, surrounded by women, men and lowing cows, while the twelve suns serve his divine body with their heat, their bodies horripilating of ecstatic love.”
yāra dvādaśāditya nāma, mahā-tīrtha sei dhāma, mui tāra daraśana lobhe.
sarvadā āśraya kori, nitya yeno tāre smari, padāṅkita bhūmi anurāge
“I take shelter of the great holy place named Dvādaśāditya Tīrtha, where this pastime takes place and where the soil is marked by Krishna’s footprints. May I always remember this place, that I desire to see so much!”