Shri Shrimad Bhaktivedanta Narayana Gosvami Maharaja
June 14, 2010: Badger, California
After hearing from the gopis, and especially after hearing Brahmara-gita from Shrimati Radhika, Uddhava was astonished. He was especially astonished to hear and see Shrimati Radhika's divyonmada, of which citra-jalpa is one of the features [*See endnote 1-3], and which is one of the symptoms of Her adhirudha-modana-mahabhava [*see endnote 3]. He had never before seen or heard anything like this.
Uddhava then began to convey Krishna's message to the gopis, as Krishna had requested him to do. Shri Krishna told them: "You are never actually separated from Me, for I am the Soul of all creation. Just as the elements of nature ‒ ether, air, fire, water and earth ‒ are present in every created thing, so I am present within everyone's mind, life air and senses, and also within the physical elements and the modes of material nature." (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.47.29)
In other words, Krishna is everywhere. Even if you want to be separated from Him, you cannot be separated.
Uddhava told the gopis about brahma-jnana, transcendental knowledge about the individual soul and the Supreme Soul; but the gopis did not like hearing it. The result of Uddhava's speech was not that their mood of separation diminished. Rather, the fever of their mood of separation climaxed.
Uddhava then relayed to them that Krishna had said, "The gopis should close their eyes, and then they will see that I am there." They closed their eyes and saw that Krishna was there with them, dancing and singing and performing all the activities of rasa. Seeing this, all the gopis became satisfied.
After this, Uddhava began to pray:
nayam sriyo 'nga u nitanta-rateh prasadah
svar-yositam nalina-gandha-rucam kuto 'nyah
rasotsave 'sya bhuja-danda-grhita-kantha-
labdhasisam ya udagad vraja-vallabhinam
["When Lord Shri Krishna was dancing with the gopis in the rasa-lila, the gopis were embraced by the arms of the Lord. This transcendental favor was never bestowed upon the goddess of fortune or any other consorts in the spiritual world. Indeed, never was such a thing even imagined by the most beautiful girls in the heavenly planets, whose bodily luster and aroma resemble the lotus flower; what to speak of worldly women who are very beautiful according to material estimation." (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.47.60)]
Uddhava glorified the gopis, saying, "These gopis are so lucky that at the time of rasa-lila Krishna put His arms around their necks." Why did He do this? He was showing them that He will never leave them. This kind of love and good fortune has never been experienced by the demigods' wives or even by Laksmi-devi. No one in the world is as lucky as the gopis.
asam aho carana-renu-jusam aham syam
vrndavane kim api gulma-latausadhinam
ya dustyajam sva-janam arya-patham ca hitva
bhejur mukunda-padavim srutibhir vimrgyam
["The gopis of Vrindavan have given up the association of their husbands, sons and other family members, who are very difficult to give up, and they have forsaken the path of chastity to take shelter of the lotus feet of Mukunda, Krishna, for which one should search by Vedic knowledge. Oh, let me be fortunate enough to be one of the bushes, creepers or herbs in Vrindavan because the gopis trample them and bless them with the dust of their lotus feet." (Shrimad-bhagavatam 10.47.61)]
How Uddhava glorifies the gopis! He prays, "Aho (Alas)! I want to be a thin blade of grass, or a creeper growing on the ground. In this way I will be blessed by the dust of the gopis' lotus feet as they – their ornaments and clothing disarrayed, on the wrong parts of their bodies – run to meet with Krishna in rasa-lila. Even the Vedas and Srutis are not lucky enough to touch the foot-dust of those gopis."
Uddhava is praying, "In my next birth I want to be the foot-dust of the gopis." That is why, even today, in Uddhava-kunda in Govardhana, he is residing as grass and thinking, "When the gopis come, they will put their feet on my head." If Uddhava had directly prayed to them, "Please put your foot-dust on my head," the gopis would never have agreed. He therefore considered it better to ask to be a blade of grass, so that the gopis would place their lotus feet on him as they went to the rasa dance with Krishna.
ya vai sriyarcitam ajadibhir apta-kamair
yogesvarair api yad atmani rasa-gosthyam
krsnasya tad bhagavatah caranaravindam
nyastam stanesu vijahuh parirabhya tapam
["The Goddess of Fortune herself, along with Lord Brahma and all the other demigods, who are masters of yogic perfection, can worship the lotus feet of Krishna only within their minds. But during the rasa dance, Lord Krishna placed His feet upon these gopis' breasts, and by embracing those feet the gopis gave up all distress." (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.47.62)]
Uddhava continued, "The gopis are so fortunate! Shri Laksmi-devi, who is worshipped by the entire world, as well as Brahma and others like him, also desire the dust of the lotus feet of Krishna upon their heads. Those very feet are directly placed by the gopis on their breasts during rasa, but this is impossible for others."
["I repeatedly offer my respects to the dust from the feet of the women of Nanda Maharaja's cowherd village. When these gopis loudly chant the glories of Shri Krishna, the vibration purifies the three worlds." (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.47.63)]
"I offer vandana (prayers) to the gopis who live in the village of Nandagaon, who glorify Krishna by their singing and weeping. The hari-katha (narrations of the glories of Shri Krishna) emanating from their mouths as they weep purifies the entire universe." For example, when Krishna disappeared from them during rasa-lila, the gopis sang:
jayati te 'dhikam janmana vrajah
srayata indira sasvad atra hi
dayita drsyatam diksu tavakas
tvayi dhrtasavas tvam vicinvate
[The gopis say, "O most beloved, because of Your birth in this land of Vraja, the entire area has become more glorious than Vaikuntha and other planets. It is for this reason that Laksmi, the goddess of beauty and wealth, eternally decorates it with her presence. O beloved, in this blissful land of Vraja, it is only we gopis who are not happy. We maintain our lives solely for Your sake, being extremely anguished in separation from You, and are wandering from forest to forest in search of You. Therefore, please appear before us now." (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.31.1)]
No one before them has ever given such hari-katha; no one can do so now, and no one will be able to do so in the future. The gopis' hari-katha purifies the entire world.
Uddhava lived with the gopis for three months. He went with them to Nandagaon, Varsana, Govardhana, Ter-kadamba and many places, and pacified the them. Weeping, the gopis spoke the hari-katha of each place.
After the three months were over, Uddhava said, "Oh Nanda Baba, Mother Yasoda, and all of you Vrajavasis, I want to return to Mathura to tell Krishna of all I have seen and heard here." The gopis warned him, "Don't tell all of this to Krishna in one day, otherwise His heart – which is very soft – will break. Please tell it to Him gradually – little, by little, by little."
When Uddhava was seated on his chariot as he was leaing Vrindavan to return to Mathura, Nanda Baba came to him with all the utensils that Krishna had previously used, including His flute and His ornaments.
"What is the use of keeping all of these things here?" Nanda Baba said in a mood of great separation as he handed the items to Uddhava. "We know that Krishna will not return here, so please take these things and give them to Krishna. Tell Him that I have heard from many people, such and Paurnamasi and Gangacarya, that His qualities are like those of Narayana. I pray to Lord
Narayana that He be merciful to me. Wherever we take birth, may all of our existence be an offering to Krishna."
Neither Nanda Baba, nor Mother Yasoda, nor any of the Vrajavasis believe that Krishna is God, the Lord of lords. By this statement of Nanda Baba's it seems that his madhurya-bhava has dissipated somewhat, but that is not the case. Sometimes thoughts, which appear to indicate that the Vrajavasis have a conception of Krishna's Godhood, surface during their moments of sadness and suffering , but this is not their true thinking. Nanda Baba's madhurya-bhava is indicated by his mentioning that he had heard this from others. Also, there is some sarcasm in his mood. He is in a state of suffering, which is why he spoke as he did; but when he was okay, he never did so.
In this way, we have finished Uddhava-samvada.
["It is virtually only within the princess of Vrindavan that the ecstasy of bewilderment arises. She has attained to a special stage of this bewilderment, a wonderful state that resembles delusions, known as divyonmada. Divyonmada has many aspects, which come and go unsteadily, and one of these manifestations is citra-jalpa (talking like a mad person). This talk, induced by Her seeing Her beloved's friend, is filled with covered anger and comprises many different ecstasies. It culminates in Her intense, anxious eagerness." (Ujjvala-nilamani, by Shrila Rupa Gosvami)]
["When one is highly elevated in love (adhirudha) of Krishna, he becomes transcendentally mad (divyonmada) and talks like a madman (citra-jalpa)." (Shri Chaitanya-caritamrta, Antya-lila 14.15)]
["Only in the conjugal mellow are there two ecstatic symptoms called rudha and adhirudha . The advanced ecstasies are found among the queens of Dvaraka, and the highly advanced ecstasies are found among the gopis. Highly advanced ecstasy is divided into two categories ? madana and mohana. Meeting together is called madana, and separation is called mohana. (Shri Chaitanya-caritamrta, Madhya-lila 23.57-58)]
["The situations known as rudha and adhirudha are possible in the conjugal love relationship. Conjugal love exhibited by the queens at Dvaraka is called rudha, and conjugal love exhibited at Vrindavan by the damsels of Vraja is called adhirudha. The highest perfection of adhirudha, affection in conjugal love, involves meeting (madana) and separation (mohana). In the ecstasy of madana (meeting), there is kissing, and in the ecstasy of mohana (separation), there is udghurna (ecstatic unsteadiness and incoherence) and citra-jalpa. As far as citra-jalpa is concerned, in Shrimad-Bhagavatam, there is a portion known as Bhramara-gita in which various kinds of citra-jalpa are mentioned. (Teachings of Lord Chaitanya, Chapter 14)]
[Vijaya: "Kindly explain in detail the bhava par excellence, adhirudha-bhava."
Gosvami: "When the anubhavas of rudha-bhava reach their climax and sparkle with extraordinary splendor, then the loving emotions enter the realm of adhirudha-bhava."
Vijaya: "How many kinds of adhirudha-bhava are there?"
Gosvami: "This wonderful bhava is of two hues: modana and madana."
Vijaya: "What is modana-adhirudha-bhava?"
Gosvami: "In maha-bhava, when the entire spectrum of sattvika-bhavas being exchanged between the nayika and nayaka, Shri Radha and Shri Krishna, scintillates exceptionally, higher even than the uddipta, blazing level, then this is called modana-adhirudha-bhava. In modana-adhirudha-bhava, both Shrimati Radhika and Shri Krishna are overcome with anxiety and discontent. Furthermore, in modana-adhirudha-bhava, the love of Shrimati Radhika touches heights of ecstasy unknown to all the other gopis."
Vijaya: "Gurudeva, I am eager to learn about some particulars of modana-adhirudha-bhava. For instance, in whom does this bhava reside?"
Gosvami: "Modana-bhava is only present in the yutha of Shrimati Radhika, nowhere else. Modana is the favorite pleasure arena of the hladini- sakti. At a certain stage, in viraha-dasa, the anguish of separation, modana converts to mohana and then, as viraha-dasa becomes all-encompassing, all the magnificent sattvika-bhavas radiate at the level of suddipta, greatest brilliance."
Vijaya: "What are the anubhavas in the state of mohana?"
Gosvami: "Some of the symptoms are that Shri Krishna swoons unconscious in the embrace of a nayika who is not Shrimati Radhika. For example, this may occur in Dvaraka when He is in the embrace of Queen Rukmini and remembers His amorous pastimes with Shrimati Radhika in the leafy bowers of Vrindavan. Shrimati Radhika accepts the severest hardship and grief in the pain of separation, and yet wishes only for Krishna to be happy. Yearning for union with Krishna brings such a pang of separation to the heart of Shrimati Radhika that the entire material creation and even Vaikuntha are plunged into the deepest sorrow. Even birds and beasts shed tears as Shrimati Radhika expresses to Her intimate sakhis that Her heart-pangs may cause Her death, and if this were to happen then Her body should be covered with earth so that the burial spot may bring consolation to Her beloved, Shri Krishna. Only Shrimati Radhika, the Queen of Vrindavan, is embellished with the infinite depth of these anubhavas of mohana-adhirudha-bhava. Furthermore, the super-excellent splendor of the sancari-bhavas of mohana-adhirudha-bhava is fully manifested in Shrimati Radhika alone."
Vijaya: "Prabhu, if you consider it appropriate, kindly elucidate the divya-unmada-laksana, symptoms of spiritual madness, which you have just briefly described."
Gosvami: "When mohana-adhirudha-bhava enters its zenith, an amazing and inexplicable condition of the mind known as divya-unmada is created, which is a mental state very similar to bhrama, or delusion. Divya-unmada is of many different varieties, two of which are udghurna and citra-jalpa."
Vijaya: "What is udghurna?"
Gosvami: "When many astonishing but helpless endeavors are made in divya-unmada, this is known as udghurna, ecstatic unsteadiness and incoherence. Shrimati Radhika was in the grip of udghurna after Krishna had left for Mathura, Her mind benumbed by the pangs of separation. At times, She thought that Krishna was on His way back, and She hurriedly arranged everything in the kunja. Sometimes, like an outraged wife, She chastised the black clouds for infidelity, mistaking them for Krishna. Sometimes, in the darkness of night, She secretly hurried to an imagined rendezvous with Krishna."
Vijaya: "Kindly explain citra-jalpa."
Gosvami: "When the nayika meets the intimate friend of the nayaka, feeling the acute pangs of separation, she unburdens her love-laden heart by discussing many confidential matters that may go through a whole range of emotions from garva, awed respect towards the beloved, to utkantha, excessive eagerness for union. The term for such conversations is citra-jalpa, varieties of mad emotional talks."
Vijaya: "What are the variations in citra-jalpa?"
Gosvami: "The ten limbs of citra-jalpa have been delineated in the Bhramara-gita section of the tenth canto of the Shrimad Bhagavatam. They are prajalpa, parijalpa, vijalpa, ujjalpa, sanjalpa, avajalpa, abhijalpa, ajalpa, pratijalpa, and sujalpa."
Vijaya: "Kindly explain prajalpa."
Gosvami: "On account of the innumerable and wonderful inflections in the amazing range of bhavas, citra-jalpa is very personal and difficult to fully describe, but some of its aspects can be expressed.
To narrate insultingly with gesticulations induced by feelings of malice, envy, and pride, about the tactless inappropriate behavior of one's beloved is defined as prajalpa."
Vijaya: "What is parijalpita?"
Gosvami: "In the madness of love, to expertly point out the personal faults of one's beloved, Krishna ? such as cruelty, treachery, fickleness, heartlessness, and ingratitude ? is called parijalpita."
Vijaya: "What is vijalpa?"
Gosvami: "Within Her heart the nayika feels deep love for Krishna, but externally She uses harsh and cutting remarks towards Him. These are symptoms of vijalpa."
Vijaya: "What is ujjalpa?"
Gosvami: "When with offended pride and feeling both jealousy and respect, the nayika angrily slanders Krishna for his cheating ways in the art of love, it is known as ujjalpa."
Vijaya: "What is sanjalpa?"
Gosvami: "Feeling deep resentment, the nayika exposes Krishna's ungratefulness in love with many cryptic and humorous words of derision. This is called sanjalpa."
Vijaya: "What is avajalpa?"
Gosvami: "In the anger of avajalpa, Krishna is declared to be hard-hearted, lusty, and sly, and therefore one is fearful that one's hopeless attachment to Him may prove to be self-destructive."
Vijaya: "What is abhijalpa?"
Gosvami: "Lamenting and making witticisms such as: 'When Krishna causes the pain of separation even to innocent birds such as His pet parrot and peacocks, it is certainly futile to become attached to Him,' is defined as abhijalpa."
Vijaya: "What is ajalpa?"
Gosvami: "Feeling despondency, the nayika professes apathy towards Krishna because of His deceitful and merciless ways in love that bring only distress to Her. She suggests how pleasurable it would be to forget Him and pay attention to something else. These are the symptoms of ajalpa."
Vijaya: "What is pratijalpa?"
Gosvami: "In pratijalpa, the nayika soliloquizes about Krishna's libidinous desires being more befitting a pirate or the like. Therefore, if She were to meet with Him, that would certainly be rash and foolhardy when He is already romancing so many other women ? but pretending to be interested in Her alone. This message is given by the nayika to the awaiting messenger sent by Krishna."
Vijaya: "What is sujalpa?"
Gosvami: "When the nayika is grave, humble, and listless because of pangs of the heart, but straightforwardly and repeatedly enquires about Krishna with unrestrained eagerness in love, this is called sujalpa. This completes the list of citra-jalpa." (Jaiva-dharma, Chapter 36)]