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  1. 20 October 1991 Tridandisvami Shri Shrimad Bhaktivedanta Narayana Gosvami Maharaja [The lecture below, on the sixth verse of Shri Vilap-kusumanjali, was given in Vrindavan in 1991.] Text Six vairagya-yug-bhakti-rasah prayatnair apayayan mam anabhipsum andham krpa ambudhih yah para-duhkha-duhkhi sanatanah tam prabhum asrayami vairagya—renunciation; yug—enriched with; bhakti—devotion; rasam—nectarean taste; prayatnaih—carefully; apayayan—made drink; mam—me; anabhipsum—unwilling; andham—blind; krpa—of mercy; ambudhih—an ocean; yah—who; para—of others; duhkha—misery; duhkhi—was sorry; sanatanah—Sanatana Gosvami; tam—him; prabhum—lord; asrayami—I take shelter. Translation I take shelter of my lord and master, Shri Sanatana Gosvami, who is an ocean of compassion and who always feels sorry for the suffering of others. Although I was unwilling and blinded by ignorance, he diligently made me drink the nectar of devotion laced with renunciation. Commentary Shrila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami has prayed to his diksa-guru, Yadunandana Acarya, in a general way, and to his raganuga siksa-guru, Shrila Rupa Gosvami, in a more special way. From this we may infer that there are different types of gurus. If one's guru has not given one any instruction in raganuga, one may also have another guru, as did Raghunatha dasa Gosvami. However, if the guru has given both vaidhi and raganuga siksa, there is no question of accepting another guru. As far as I know, Raghunatha dasa Gosvami did not receive any siksa of raganuga from Yadunandana Acarya, because at that time Raghunatha dasa had no idea of raganuga bhajana. He learned from Shrila Haridasa Thakura to chant "Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna," and from his diksa-guru, he understood, "I am Krishna dasa" and "We should chant harinama. We should do bhakti." He had no opportunity to receive greed for raganuga from Yadunandana Acarya. Still, it is a very, very important task to bring someone from the worldly side to Krishna's side. If the guru cannot do that, then the endeavor to approach raganuga, rupanuga, and everything else will be useless. The vaidhi-bhakti guru is certainly guru. Even if someone, without giving mantra or diksa, has endeavored to put us in contact with guru or Krishna, and has given some inspiration to worship Radha and Krishna in vaidhi-bhakti, we should be so grateful to that person. It is for this reason that Raghunatha dasa Gosvami has prayed to Shri Yadunandana Acarya. In raganuga bhajana, Shrila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami is especially indebted to Shrila Rupa Gosvami, and also to Shrila Sanatana Gosvami. He was primarily associating with Rupa Gosvami, however, and he has taken all his ideas and ideals for raganuga bhajana from him. He prayed only to Rupa Manjari in his siddhi-deha. He has not prayed to him in the same apparently external way that he prayed to Shri Sanatana Gosvami: sanatanas tam prabhum asrayami. Rupa Gosvami gave him all the conceptions needed in raganuga and rupanuga for developing manjari-bhava, and Shri Sanatana Gosvami gave him all necessary instruction in vaidhi-bhakti and sadhana-bhajana aiming for raganuga. When Raghunatha dasa Gosvami had first come from Jagannatha Puri, due to the intense pain of his separation for Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu he was of a mind to give up his life. He wanted to go to Govardhana, climb upon the hill, and, by jumping from there, end his life. If he had simply wanted to commit suicide, Raghunatha dasa Gosvami could have easily done so in Puri. Why did he not do so? While passing through the Jharikhanda forest, full of tigers and other wild beasts, dense forests, and high mountains, he could have easily died without anyone interfering. Why was he intent upon leaving his body at Govardhana? He had some thoughts: "I will have to serve Radha and Krishna, if not in this life, then in another. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu has given me the shelter of Govardhana, so I will go to Govardhana, and, if Govardhana allows, I will give up my life there. As Gita has said, 'Whatever a man thinks of at his last moment, he will attain in his next birth.' I will die at Govardhana with this ambition: 'O Giriraja Govardhana, please grant me a birth near you. Have mercy upon me so that I may serve Radha and Krishna, and especially Shrimati Radhika.' In his Manah Siksa, sloka two, Raghunatha dasa Gosvami has written: na dharman nadharmam sruti-gana-niruktam kila kuru vraje radha-krsna-pracura-paricaryam iha tanuh saci-sunam nandisvara-pati-sutatve guru-varam mukunda-presthatve smara padam ajasram nanu manah ["O my dear mind! Please do not perform either the dharma or adharma mentioned in the srutis or Vedas. Rather, you should render profuse loving service to Shri Shri Radha-Krishna Yugala here in Vraja, for the srutis have ascertained Them to be the highest principle of supreme worship and the Supreme Absolute Truth. Always meditate on Sacinandana, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, who is richly endowed with the complexion and sentiments of Shrimati Radhika, as non-different from Shri Nanda-nandana. And always remember Shri Gurudeva as most dear to Shri Mukunda."] Now he was thinking, "To carry out the order of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is service to Him. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is actually Radha and Krishna. Therefore, if He is telling me to serve Radha and Krishna, that is also service to Him." He was considering that if he would die in this consciousness, he would at least take birth as grass at Govardhana, as Uddhava did. He determined, "Then, at the time of abhisara, when the gopis go to meet with Krishna at night, their pure foot-dust will come upon my head. In this way I will be satisfied." He therefore wanted to die at Govardhana, especially near Radha-kunda and Syama-kunda. As soon as he arrived in Vrindavana, Raghunatha dasa Gosvami went to Shri Rupa Gosvami and Shri Sanatana Gosvami and offered his obeisances. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu had previously told him, "Always consider Rupa Gosvami and Sanatana Gosvami as your elder brothers," and therefore he came and offered them his obeisances. Somehow or other Rupa Gosvami and Sanatana Gosvami understood that he had a wish to die at Govardhana. Shri Sanatana Gosvami was very wise in understanding a person's heart. In this respect, he was even wiser than Shri Rupa Gosvami. He was raja-niti-jna, in knowledge of politics, whereas Rupa Gosvami was very simple. Shri Sanatana Gosvami and other Gosvamis used tarka, logic, in their writings. To make common persons understand anything, especially in vaidhi-bhakti and the methods of krsna-bhajana, some logic is very necessary. Vedanta itself is based on sound logical principles. Rupa Gosvami writes for those eager form raganuga-bhakti, "Don't take shelter of any logic. What I am explaining for entrance into the transcendental pastimes of Krishna does not depend upon logic. Such logic cannot help you in this realm. Only sraddha can give you entrance here." He has not used logic anywhere in his Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu, Ujjvala-nilamani, Vidagdha Madhava, or Lalita Madhava. For preaching, of course, it is very essential to have logic, and for management raja-niti is essential. If we examine Rupa Gosvami's books, we will see that he is simply telling lila-katha (topics regarding Krishna's pastimes), without touching upon logic or scriptural arguments at all. From the beginning of Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu and Ujjvala-nilamani, he has cited references from various scriptures regarding lila-katha, rasa (the taste of relationship with Krishna), and vilasa (playful pastimes). These books contrast Jiva Gosvami's Tattva Sandarbha, which has used all logic and sastric evidences to establish his points. Shrila Rupa Gosvami has written all his books, such as Lalita Madhava, Vidagdha Madhava, and Hamsaduta, only on the basis of the pastimes of Krishna. parama-rasa-rahasyannanda-nihsyandi-vrnda vana-vipina-nikunje divya-divyair vilasaih niravadhi rasamanan radhika-krsnacandrau bhaja sakalam upeksya tavakah sastra-yuktih (Nikunja-rahasya-stava #31) ["Shri Shri Radha-Krishnacandra enjoy limitless, splendid transcendental pastimes in the secluded, blissful groves of Vrindavan forest. O friend, please abandon all contrary scriptural arguments and just worship Them with pure devotion."] In this verse, Shrila Rupa Gosvami recommends that one should do bhajana of Radha and Krishna, always chanting and remembering Their nikunja-lila. He says here, "There is no need to adhere to sastra-yuktih, scriptural logic. Whatever logic has been given in Vedanta or other sastra, leave that aside; don't depend upon that. Logic is required in vaidhi-bhakti, and also for managing and preaching. For entering deeply into bhajana, however, only sraddha is of necessity." This poetry of Rupa Gosvami contains thirty-two slokas of nikunja lila, from Radha-Krishna's lila at the beginning of the night all the way to nisanta lila. "Leaving all logic and scriptural regulations aside, meditate on these confidential pastimes and do bhajana." This is the specialty of Rupa Gosvami's teachings regarding raganuga-bhakti. By the expert employment of sastric and general logic, by politics, and by following carefully the example of our acaryas and especially Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Shri Sanatana Gosvami convinced Raghunatha dasa Gosvami to not give up his life. He then related his personal experience. He told Raghunatha dasa, "At first, in Jagannatha Puri, I was of the same opinion as you." After traveling through Jharikhanda forest, Sanatana Gosvami had developed itching, oozing sores all over his body. Whenever Chaitanya Mahaprabhu would see him, He would run towards him and embrace him. Sanatana Gosvami considered, "It is offensive on my part that Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, being Krishna Himself, is embracing me to His chest and the moisture from these sores is touching His body. Rather than allow my offense to continue, I have made up my mind to give up my life at the time of the Ratha festival, under the wheels of the chariot." Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu could understand Sanatana Gosvami's heart and said, "O Sanatana, if a person gives something to another person, does he have any right to take that property back?" Chaitanya Mahaprabhu did not order him directly, but cleverly and tactfully He indicated His desire. Then He told him, "The first point is that if you have surrendered your body to Me, you no longer have the right to do what you like with it. Only I have that right. By taking what is rightfully Mine, you are committing an offense to Me. Secondly, if I had thought that by giving up My life I could attain the service of Radha and Krishna, I would give up My body millions of times. By giving up one's life, one cannot attain Radha and Krishna's service. Only by bhakti-yoga can a person have Their service. Try to understand this. Give up your idea of ending your life. Increase your sadhana-bhajana, and you will very soon achieve perfection." Shri Sanatana Gosvami continued, "By hearing the words of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu I understood His desire, and I have thus tried to follow His order and serve Radha and Krishna. You should do the same. You have no right to give up your life, because you have already surrendered your soul to Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Svarupa Damodara, Raya Ramananda, and also to us brothers. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu told you to come to Vrindavan and stay in our company, and therefore we will try to protect, support, and nourish you. Don't worry. Just stay at Radha Kunda, at Govardhana, and always chant harinama and perform bhajana." In this verse of Vilapa-kusumanjali, Raghunatha dasa Gosvami is now remembering, "If I had left my body at that time, I would have never received instruction in raganuga and manjari-bhava. I would have never read Vidagdha Madhava, Lalita Madhava, or Dana Keli Kumudi, nor would I have written any books. I am therefore so much indebted to Shri Sanatana Gosvami." Anabhipsum andham. "I was unaware of raganuga-bhakti." Raghunatha dasa Gosvami is speaking in a mood of humility. Actually, he had received instructions in raganuga-bhajana from Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and Svarupa Damodara, and he had learned so much more from Rupa Gosvami. Still, he is saying, "I was andha, blind. I did not know anything about rasamayi-bhakti, Krishna, Radha, the gopis, or Vraja-bhava. I did not even have the desire for these things." We also would be quite blind in these matters if we had not come to our Gurudeva. At first we had nothing, and now we reflect on how obliged and indebted we are to him. Should we advance further, we will feel even more indebted. Anabhipsum. "I did not want that bhakti, but Sanatana Gosvami gave it by force." If a boy requires medicine and is not willing to take it, his mother will give it to him by force. She will forcibly open his mouth. Similarly, Raghunatha dasa Gosvami says, "I was not in the mood to take up this raganuga-bhakti, so he forced me." Prayatnair means 'carefully.' When Raghunatha dasa Gosvami lived at Radha Kunda, Sanatana Gosvami used to go there from Vrindavan to do Govardhana parikrama. Shri Sanatana Gosvami is Lavanga Manjari. Why did he do parikrama? Did he have anything to gain for himself? Yad yad acarati sresthas tat tad evetaro janah (Bhagavad-gita 3.21). People in general benefited by his example, but that was also not his real motive. Raghunatha dasa Gosvami is saying, "He used to go only for me." This is the meaning of the word prayatnair. He did it to give his association to Raghunatha dasa Gosvami. Raghunatha dasa continues, "You come here now and then, only to see how this orphan boy is doing. You come to tell me the pastimes of Krishna and to teach me how to serve Him." I personally prefer to live in Vrindavan. Why, then, do I stay in Mathura? Is there some specific benefit for me to remain in Mathura? Is it for rupees, delicious food, or the affection of the residents of Mathura? Could it be that I will advance more in raganuga-bhakti and achieve the mercy of Shrimati Radhika and the manjaris by being here? No, there is another reason. In Shrimad-Bhagavatam, there is a sloka: bhavad-vidha bhagavatas tirtha-bhutah svayam vibho tirthi-kurvanti tirthani svantah-sthena gadabhrta (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.13.10) ["My Lord, devotees like your good self are verily holy places personified. Because you carry the Personality of Godhead within your heart, you turn all places into places of pilgrimage."] This is a very important verse, told by Yudhisthira Maharaja to Vidura. Yudhisthira Maharaja was so glad to see Vidura, who had just returned to his palace after the great Battle of Kuruksetra. Another sloka is also related to this point: mahad-vicalanam nrinam grihinam dina-cetasam nihsreyasaya bhagavan kalpate nanyatha kvacit (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.8.4) ["O my lord, O great devotee, persons like you move from one place to another, not for their own interests, but for the sake of poor-hearted grhastas. Otherwise, they have no interest in going from one place to another."] This sloka was spoken by Nanda Baba to Garga Rsi at Krishna's name-giving ceremony. Nanda Baba said, "I know you have not come here for a donation." Babajis and priests come to their patron only for his donations, and they remain at his home only until the donation is paid. It is certain that as soon as it is paid they return to their own residences. Here Nanda Baba is expressing, "Actually, Gargacarya, you have no personal reason to come here. You have no self-interest. You have come to my house only because I am a very wretched grhastha. You go to the homes of grhasthas only to give them krsna-bhakti. You are a bhagavata." Who is a bhagavata? One who has bhakti for Svayam Bhagavan Krishna is a bhagavata. The symptom of a bhagavata has been recorded in various slokas. One symptom is that the wealth of the entire universe cannot influence the heart of a bhagavata, or change his ideas, what to speak of some donation. Nanda Baba continued, "You have not come with any self-interest, but only for the benefit of a wretched grhasta such as myself who has fallen into the dry well of householder life. You have come to give mercy." Shri Sanatana Gosvami's concern for Shri Raghunatha dasa Gosvami was displayed in the following pastime: Once, Raghunatha dasa Gosvami was sitting under the open sky and performing bhajana on the banks of Syama Kunda. Two tigers approached the kunda, drank water, and then went away. Sanatana Gosvami was watching this from a distance and became concerned. He approached Raghunatha dasa Gosvami and instructed him, "O Raghunatha, you should not sit here like this. I will build a hut for you. By my special order you will have to live there and perform your bhajana there." Raghunatha dasa Gosvami could not refuse his order. Sanatana Gosvami made a hut, and from that time onward Raghunatha dasa Gosvami lived there, chanted harinama, and performed all other devotional activities. Even though Rupa Gosvami and Sanatana Gosvami – especially Sanatana Gosvami – used to see Raghunatha dasa Gosvami as their younger brother, he always saw them as his gurus. Being the direct disciples of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Sanatana Gosvami, Rupa Gosvami, and Raghunatha dasa Gosvami were all god-brothers Therefore Sanatana Gosvami and Rupa Gosvami saw Raghunatha dasa as their god-brother, never as their disciple. On the other hand, he never saw them as god-brothers. He always saw them as his own gurus. "Gurur kinkara haya manya se amar. The servant of the guru is always respectable for us." (Cc. Mad 10.142) This is a statement by Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. When Govinda came and met Mahaprabhu in Puri, he told Him, "Our Gurudeva, Isvara Puripad, has sent me to serve You." Mahaprabhu was thinking, "How can this be? He is my god-brother, and therefore I should respect him. But he wants to serve Me." His guru had ordered that Govinda serve Him, and therefore He accepted his service. The servant of the guru should be deeply respected. Understanding this, Raghunatha dasa Gosvami always saw Sanatana Gosvami and Rupa Gosvami as his gurus. We should also have this behavior amongst ourselves, for that will create love between us. We may think, "I am guru. He knows nothing. He is not as good a servant of our Gurudeva as I am. He doesn't even know any Siddhanta." If we think in this way, there will be quarrels among us, and now this is going on: "I am the only acarya and no one else is qualified." Where there is hating and similar mentalities, that place is Kali-rajya, the kingdom of Kali. Vairagya-yuga-bhakti. There are two types of bhakti. One is general and the other is bhakti with vairagya. Vairagya has two meanings. Visesa rupena raga. This means 'special raga,' or in other words, anuraga (great absorption and affection for Krishna). The distinguishing feature of vairagya is raga or anuraga. This is a most important point. When anuraga is present, attachment for sense objects cannot remain. This is the definition of vairagya. One truly fixed in vairagya will have attachment only for bhakti and for the service of Radha and Krishna. One who has this special anuraga for Radhika's service will automatically leave all worldly attachments. Those who have not developed real vairagya may leave their worldly attachments, but after some time they will again become immersed in those things. Shrila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami has this special attachment to the service of Radha and Krishna and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, and he glorifies Shri Sanatana Gosvami as the one who blessed him with this vairagya-yuga-bhakti, or renunciation enriched with bhakti. In Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's own life we see this vairagya-yuga-bhakti, and when He sees His followers performing bhakti with vairagya He is so pleased. He desires that every one of His devotees should be akincana, niskincana, thinking that their only possession is Krishna. We are not like this, and therefore we have so many problems. If we maintain any attachment for anything other than Krishna – to name and fame, wealth, women, or food – then bhakti will become very remote for us. It will be very, very remote. It is stated in Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita, Antya-lila 6.310: sade sata prahara yaya kirtana-smarane ahara-nidra cari danda seha nahe kona dine sade sata prahara—7.5 praharas (one prahara equals three hours); yaya—is spent; kirtana-smarane—in chanting the Hare Krishna maha-mantra and remembering the lotus feet of Krishna; ahara-nidra—eating and sleeping; cari danda—four dandas (one danda equals twenty-four minutes); seha—that; nahe—is not; kona dine—some days. ["Raghunatha dasa spent more than twenty-two hours out of every twenty-four chanting the Hare Kåñëa maha-mantra and remembering the lotus feet of the Lord. He ate and slept for less than an hour and a half, and on some days that also was impossible."] A complete day and night is eight prahara, and one prahara, three hours, consists of six or seven danda. Our Gosvamis spent four dandas; that is, about one and a half to two hours, on eating, drinking, and sleeping. They spent the rest of the day and night, over seven and half prahara, doing asta-kaliya-lila smarana. Moreover, there were some days when they neglected to eat or sleep at all. We sleep from eight to nine hours daily. Then, so much time is spent in oil massage, bathing, roaming here and there, general laziness, sitting and sitting, and thinking. The rest of the day passes as we talk about things other than hari-katha. Then, sometimes we feel sick, and at that time doctors must be brought and medicine administered. Our whole time goes in vain. Certainly, this is a situation of great hopelessness! Krpambudhir yah. Sanatana Gosvami is a great ocean of mercy, the highest extent of mercy. He can also give Radha's mercy. He can pray, "O Shrimati Radhika, please give Your mercy to this devotee." Lalita devi can also give this, and we can pray to her: yam kam api vraja-kule vrsabhanu jayah preksya sva-paksa-padavim anurudhyamanam sadyas tad ista-ghatanena krtarthayantim devim gunaih su-lalitam lalitam namami (Shri Lalitastikam verse 6) ["I offer my obeisances to Shrimati Lalita devi, who is the embodiment of all sublime qualities. When she approaches any young maiden upon seeing her in the vicinity of Vrindavan, and finds out after some clever interrogation that she is inclined toward her mistress Radhika, immediately fulfills her desires and satisfies her completely."] If Lalita hears that any teenage gopi in Vraja wants to be a playa-dasi (unpaid maidservant) of Shrimati Radhika, she at once fulfills the desires of that gopi. If anyone, anywhere, has in his form as a sadhaka the desire that, "I only want to be a playa-dasi of Radhika," and if he prays to Lalita-devi, "I want to be a playa-dasi of Radhika; this is so high, but I want it. O Lalita-devi, please be merciful to me so that I may have that service," then Lalita will manage to do this at once. This is the mood of this sloka. Lalita will ask any kisori (teenage gopi) moving within Vraja, "O kisori, where are you going?" The young girl may reply, "I'm going to Varsana (or Javat or Radha Kunda). "Why are you going there, kisori?" "I know it is very difficult to achieve, but I am going there with the hope that Shrimati Radhika may keep me as Her playa-dasi." When Lalita knows this she at once tries to give that bhava. She will order – not pray – to Shrimati Radhika, "Keep this girl as Your palya-dasi. I'm writing her name in the register of Your playa-dasis." Shrimati Radhika cannot disobey. She is bound to obey the order of Lalita. If Lalita sees any sign at all that one wants to become a playa-dasi, she certainly arranges for it. At once she tells Radhika, and Radhika obeys her order. This is the meaning of krpambudhir (an ocean of mercy) in this prayer by Srjila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami to Shrila Sanatana Gosvami, and there is no krpa (mercy) beyond this. Shri Sanatana Gosvami, as Lavanga Manjari, is an ocean of mercy because he can distribute the mercy of Shrimati Radhika. Para duhkha-duhkhi. Sanatana Gosvami is always unhappy to see the unhappiness of any jiva. No jiva is saying to him, "Please have mercy upon me." Rather, he sees that they are pots or vessels for mercy though they don't want it. He will go to a person and request, "Can you give me water to drink?" Why is he asking for water? This is because he wants to give his mercy; he is creating their sukriti. He therefore travels to every village and contacts the sense enjoyers. In the grhasta's home he questions, "I have heard that your daughter is soon to be married." The grhastha may reply, "Her marriage has already been performed." "Oh, how is she?" Although he has no self-interest, Sanatana Gosvami will listen to all the samacara, news, of the villagers. What is the need? He wants to give them bhakti by his association – somehow or other. He will instruct someone, "Your father is very ill. Try to chant 'Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna' and he will improve." In any way he can, Sanatana Gosvami gives his mercy. This is the symptom of para-duhkha-duhkhi. He has nothing to be gained for himself. Rather, he is simply unhappy to see the unhappiness of others. Sanatanas tam prabhum asrayami. Raghunatha dasa Gosvami is addressing Sanatana Gosvami as Prabhu. Who is Prabhu? Mahaprabhu is Mahaprabhu, and Nityananda and Advaita Acarya are both Prabhus. A Prabhu is one who can give anything to any person. He should be master of all things. I may ask you, "I want a son. Please give me a son." Can you fulfill my request? No, you cannot. But if I request you, "Give me five rupees," you can give that. What you have, you can give. You cannot give what you don't have. Because Sanatana Gosvami can give anything we may desire, Raghunatha dasa Gosvami has addressed him as Prabhu: "O Prabhu, you have something in your treasury which you can supply to me. Please give me radha-pada dasya. You are the master of that. Prabhu asrayami. I am taking shelter of your lotus feet." The question is raised: "We hear that Raghunatha dasa Gosvami prays to Shri Rupa Manjari, but does he not pray to Lavanga Manjari in the same way? The answer is that he has not prayed here, but he knows that Sanatana Gosvami is Lavanga Manjari. He can pray, but not everything can be written. In his mind he always prays. He has prayed to all the sakhis, and he has prayed even to Saibya, Padma and Candravali who are Radhika's rivals – and what to speak of Lavanga Manjari. Raghunatha dasa Gosvami has prayed to Sakhi Sthali (the abode of Candravali, Radhika's chief rival), though in one way he should not do so. A man once brought buttermilk from there, and he became very furious; yet he prayed to Sakhi Sthali. He has also offered pranama to Jatila and Kotila (the mother-in-law and sister-in-law of Radhika, who ae always trying to prevent Radhika from meeting with Krishna). If Jatila and Kotila were not there, there would be no rasa. So it must be that he also prays to Lavanga Manjari, Sanatana Gosvami in his form as a manjari, but not everything can be given in writing. In Shrimad-Bhagavatam we see the same thing. Only one day's rasa has been described, and only eight days' association of Uddhava has been given. It is stated that Uddhava stayed in Vrindavan for six or ten months, but what took place and what conversations transpired have not been written. We should always remember all these topics, as well as the pastimes of Krishna – not only for others, but with a wish to have a relationship with Him.
  2. Shri Shrimad Bhaktivedanta Narayana Gosvami Maharaja October 7th, 2006 [For the divine disappearance day of Shrila Bhakti Prajnana Keshava Gosvami Maharaja. Shrila Narayana Gosvami Maharaja gave this lecture on his disappearance day, the first day of Kartika, in 2006. Please accept this glorification of his Guru Maharaja:] Today is the disappearance day (tirobhava-tithi) of our Gurudeva, nitya-lila pravishta Shrila Bhakti Prajnana Keshava Gosvami Maharaja. Where was I? I was born in the place of the demon Jarasandha [*See Endnote 1]. By the infinite mercy of my Guru Maharaja, he attracted this unqualified person and gave me a place at his lotus feet. By his mercy he made me qualified to understand the mission of Shri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, and to preach it all around the world. I had the good fortune to be able to perform his service without any duplicity. Once, the personal servant of my Gurudeva named Ananga-mohana prabhu was afflicted with tuberculosis. At that time I approached my Gurudeva and said, "You go and preach. I will take the responsibility to look after Ananga-mohana prabhu." Years later, Shrila Trivikrama Maharaja told me, "The reason you are preaching so successfully all around the world is because you gave your life for the service of the servant of your Gurudeva. Therefore our Gurudeva has completely empowered you in every way." It is only by my Gurudeva's mercy that I was able to translate Jaiva-dharma from Bengali to Hindi. Now, by his mercy only, Jaiva-dharma and other books of Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura, like Shri Bhajana-rahasya, are being translated in so many languages, like English, French, German, Spanish and Chinese. This is all his mercy. By his mercy so many hundreds of Bengalis, Delhi devotees and foreigners have come here, and by his mercy some of them are even becoming qualified to take sannyasa. It is our good fortune that Shri Ananda prabhu, the personal cook of my Gurudeva, is here today. He was so dear to Gurudeva. He knew when Gurudeva was hungry or thirsty, and according to Gurudeva's desire he would manifest whatever was necessary. It is our good fortune that of all my god-brothers, Ananda prabhu could come here. How my Gurudeva was prepared to give his life for the service of his Gurudeva, Shrila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura Prabhupada! Once, when Shrila Prabhupada Bhaktisiddhanta was performing Shri Navadvipa-dhama parikrama, the sahajiyas and the Jata-gosais, (those who are against the preaching of Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura and Shrila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura) assembled at Praudhamaya to kill him. They gathered in large groups, throwing soda bottles, glass and rocks. Everybody ran to save their own lives, including even the sannyasis and the main disciples of Shrila Prabhupada. But, our Gurudeva took Shrila Bhaktisiddhanta Prabhupada into one room, and begged with great concern, "Please, give me your sannyasa-cloth. I will wear it, and you can wear my white cloth." Shrila Prabhupada gave his sannyasa cloth and danda to my Gurudeva. We think this was his real sannyasa initiation. Many years after Shrila Bhaktisiddhanta Prabhupada disappeared from this world, he appeared to my Gurudeva in a dream and gave him sannyasa. This happened three times. He would say, "Oh Vinoda, you have not taken sannyasa, and therefore my preaching has completely stopped." He gave Gurudeva sannyasa three times in dream. Later, that sannyasa was formalized by Shri Shrimad Bhakti Rakshak Shridhara Maharaja in Katva. What was the speciality of my Gurudeva? He was very philosophical, with complete knowledge of all the sastra, and at the same time he was also a great rasika (relisher of ecstatic love of Krishna, and knower of all rasas) Vaisnava. Without these two qualities he could not have composed astakams (devotional poetry consisting of eight verses) like this one: radha-cinta-nivesena yasya kantir vilopita sri-krsna-caranam vande radhalingita-vigraham ["I worship the lotus feet of that form of Shri Krishna, when, due to being thoroughly immersed in separation from Shrimati Radhika (who is displaying mana, her mood of jealous anger), His own dark complexion vanishes and He assumes Her bright, golden luster; or, I worship the lotus feet of Shri Krishna as He is embraced by Shrimati Radhika (after Her mana has broken)" (Shri Radha-Vinoda-Vihari-Tattvastakam, verse 1)] All his writings were very poetic, and completely in the line of Shrila Rupa Gosvami. He reveals here how after Krishna took Shrimati Radhika to Srngara-vata, He then disappeared due to fear of the other gopis. In separation from Shrimati Radhika, He then came to Imlitala where, being completely absorbed in Her, He manifested the form of Shri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Although Shri Krishna's form remained, His complexion and the moods were completely Radhika's. How wonderful is my Gurudeva's mangala-arati song: "mangala sri guru-gaura mangala murati – Glories to the auspicious forms of Shri Guru and Gaura." (Mangala Arati, verse 1) This song is the essence of the books Shri Govinda-lilamrta and Shri Krishna-bhavanamrta. In essence, the mangala-arati pastime is described there. When my Gurudeva wrote this mangala-arati song, I was very new. I did not know anything. Therefore, when he showed me that composition and asked, "Do you like it?" I said, "Oh it seems very long. The poems of Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura are very short." At that time none of the devotees in the Matha knew very much about the pastimes of Radha and Krishna. Still, my Gurudeva gave Radha-Krishna's asta-kaliya-lila. At that time, at the end of the night, Lalita, Visakha and the other gopis are looking to see: "Are They awake yet?" And Vrnda-devi is making all arrangements for the pastimes of the Divine Couple. Despite his being very rasika, if someone would say anything against his Guru Maharaja, Shrila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura, my Gurudeva would become like a thunderbolt. Once someone (from the group of sahajiya babajis) wrote an article and made some propaganda, saying, "Oh, members of the Gaudiya Matha don't know anything. They only suck on the dry skin of the mango, while we babajis are drinking the rasa of Krishna's pastimes." When my Gurudeva became very angry and accused these babajis of disrespecting his Guru Maharaja, they made a case of five hundred thousand rupees [equivalent to eleven thousand dollars] court case against him. At that time, Gurudeva sent me, along with Pujyapada Trivikrama Maharaja, Pujyapada Vamana Maharaja and Pujyapada Nrsmha Maharaja, to Medinapur. Gurudeva told us, "This is a big case. We should not get any ordinary, ten-rupee (twenty-cent) lawyer." We therefore got the best lawyer in Calcutta, and with five people we presented our case in court: Gurudeva, Pujyapada Vamana Maharaja, Pujyapada Trivikrama Maharaja, Pujyapada Nrsmha Maharaja and myself. My Gurudeva used very strong language, saying, "They are sahajiyas! They have no siddhanta and no purity!" My Gurudeva completely destroyed the arguments of their case. When the judge was giving his verdict he requested Gurudeva to use softer, more polite language." My Gurudeva replied, "I have not come into this world to speak polite language. I am a sannyasi. We preachers alone have the right to speak strongly. It is our responsibility to speak for the purification of society. No one else can do it." Another time, when my Gurudeva was visiting us in Mathura, some followers of the Nimbarka-sampradaya wrote an article in a magazine called Shri Sudarsana [* See Endnote 2], saying that when Shri Caitanya Mahaprabhu met with Keshava Kasmiri, Keshava Kasmiri defeated Him and gave Him the gopala-mantra. Shriman Mahaprabhu was thus the disciple of Keshava Kasmiri. This publication came to my attention and I showed it to my Gurudeva. His face at once became red, he became angry, and he ordered me to get a piece of paper. He then dictated, and I wrote, that there was no Nimbarka in our history and no books of Nimbarka. He said that Shrila Jiva Gosvami and our other Gosvamis, Shri Madhavacarya, Shri Ramanuja, Shrila Gopal Bhatta Gosvami and all other previous acaryas never wrote about anyone named Nimbarka Acarya. The followers of this false person used to say that Nimbarka Acarya lived at the time of Krishna. If that were true, why have none of the acaryas written about him? Sankacarya never wrote about him and Shrila Jiva Gosvami never wrote about him in his Sandarbhas. Thus there was no person named Nimbarka – this false person's followers had invented a story. Guru Maharaja explained from the evidence in Shri Caitanya-caritamrta that Keshava Kasmiri came to Navadvipa and was defeated by Shri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, and then he received some teaching from the Lord. Gurudeva wrote: "The mentality 'I will conquer the whole world' is not the teaching of vidya, knowledge." Our paper was sent to those persons involved in writing the misinformed article, after which they became quite furious. "Oh, there is no Nimbarka?!" They challenged, and they filed a case in court for defamation. Our Guru Maharaja replied, "I will prove my statements, so you should file a suit for one million rupees for defamation. You should go to court, and I am also coming. I am ready and will prove my points." He proved all his points and the opponents apologized. They promised, "In the future we will never write like this." My Gurudeva once went to the son of Thakura Bhaktivinoda, Lalit Prasada, and requested from him all the books of Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura that were kept in storage by Lalit Prasada. He then printed all the books and other literature of Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura. Gaura Premanande! [*Endnote 1 – Jarasandha was a very powerful king of Magadha, and the history of his birth and activities is also very interesting. His father, King Brhadratha, was also a very prosperous and powerful king of Magadha, but he had no son, although he married two daughters of the King of Kasi. Being disappointed in not getting a son from either of the two queens, the King, along with his wives, left home to live in the forest for austerities, but in the forest he was blessed by one great rsi to have a son, and the rsi gave him the king one mango to be eaten by his two queens. The queens did so and very soon became pregnant. The King was very happy to see the queens bearing children, but when the right time approached, the queens delivered one child in two parts, one from each of the queens' wombs. The two parts were thrown in the forest, where a great she-demon used to live, and she was glad to have some delicate flesh and blood from the newly born child. Out of curiosity she joined the two parts, and the child became complete and regained life. The she-demon was known as Jara, and being compassionate on the childless King, she went to the King and presented him with the nice child, The King was very pleased with the she-demon and wanted to reward her according to her desire. The she-demon expressed her desire that the child be named after her, and thus the child was surnamed Jarasandha, or one who was joined by Jara, the she-demon. In fact, this Jarasandha was born as one of the parts and parcels of the demon Vipracitti. The saint by whose benedictions the queens bore the child was called Candra Kausika, who foretold of the child before his father Brhadratha. (Shrimad-Bhagavatam, purport, 1.15.9) *Endnote 2 – "Some time in 1956, Shrila Gurudeva came to Mathura to Shri Keshavaji Gaudiya Matha. At that time followers of the Nimbarka sampradaya in Vrndavana used to publish a spiritual journal called Shri Sudarsana. In one issue they cast aspersions on Shri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, saying that He was a disciple of Keshava Kasmiri. In other editions they insolently dared to claim that Gaudiya Vaisnava acaryas such as Shrila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura were in the Nimbarka sampradaya. When I showed these editions to Shrila Gurudeva, he became extremely angry and immediately had a short essay written for Shri Bhagavata Patrika. The headline was 'Shri Nimbaditya and Nimbarka are not the same person.' The purport of his headline is as follows. "'Nowhere in the scriptures is there any mention of a Nimbarka sampradaya. The Puranas mention a vaisnava-acarya called Shri Nimbaditya, and the Catuhsana (the four Kumaras) have accepted this Nimbaditya Acarya as their sampradaya-acarya in the age of Kali. However, Nimbarka Svami is a completely different person. Nimbaditya was a disciple of Naradaji at the end of Dvapara-yuga, but Nimbarka Acarya appeared much more recently. Great and eminent authors of scripture such as Shrila Jiva Gosvami have mentioned the names of the prominent acaryas of all the other sampradayas, but they have not mentioned the name of Nimbarka Acarya anywhere. "'The Nimbarka sampradaya currently uses the Parijata-bhasya which was written, not by Nimbaditya Acarya, but rather by Shrinivasa Acarya and Keshava Kasmiri. These two wrote this scripture and then preached that it had been written by their guru. The scriptures of the Six Gosvamis mention the names of acaryas such as Shri Ramanuja, Shri Madhva, Shri Visnu Svami, Shri Nimbaditya and Shri Vallabha Acarya. If the Nimbarka sampradaya had existed even to a slight extent at that time, then they would most certainly have mentioned the name of Nimbarka Acarya as well. None of the other sampradaya acaryas, such as Shri Ramanuja, Shri Madhva, Shri Visnu Svami and so on have mentioned Nimbarka Acarya's name in any of the scriptures that they have written.' "When this essay was published in Shri Bhagavata Patrika, the office directors of the Sudarsana journal announced that they were making arrangements to prosecute for slander. Shrila Gurudeva replied firmly, "We will prove each and every word that we have written on the basis of evidence supported by sastra." When the prosecution party heard about Shrila Gurudeva's immense scriptural knowledge and his profound personality, they became absolutely silent, and from that day onwards they did not dare to write any more nonsense.]
  3. by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyaṇa Gosvāmī Mahārāja [Dear Respected Readers, Dandavat pranama. All glories to Shri Shri Guru and Gauranga. Below is a lecture Shrila Gurudeva gave on the first day of Kartik in Mathura. I apologize we do not know the date. Thank you to Dvija-krsna prabhu for recording and to Karunamayi dasi for digitalizing the tape and translating the short parts that were not in English. And, thank you to Haripriya dasi for checking the translation.] This very day, Saradiya- rasa-purnima (the full-moon day on which Krishna's Autumn rasa-lila began), is important in so many ways. On this day my Gurudeva entered nitya-lila, Shri Shri Radha-Krishna's eternal pastimes. It is because he has entered nitya-lila that we address him as "nitya-lila pravista om visnupada astotara-sata Shri Shrimad Bhakti Prajnana Keshava Gosvami Maharaja." He is one of the dearest associates of jagad-guru Shrila Prabhupada Bhakisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami Thakura. He served Shrila Prabhupada throughout his life. He left on this day, during Saradiya-rasa, when the moon was rising in Navadvipa-dhama. Navadvipa-dhama is non-different from Vrindavan-dhama, and in some ways it is superior. Though both are the same, in some respects it is superior. Navadvipa-dhama (Gaura-dhama), and Gaura-nama (the holy name of Shri Caitanya Mahaprabhu) do not take any offense. By Their mercy we can enter Vrindavan. By their mercy we can attain the mercy of Vrindavan and the mercy of the Divine Couple Shri Shri Radha-Krishna. Without the mercy of Gaura-Nityananda, we cannot enter the realm of bhakti. We are told to observe the appearance and disappearance days of Vaisnavas and Guru – both days – but we never observe the disappearance days of Krishna and Mahaprabhu and Their manifestations. We can celebrate the appearance day of Krishna, as well as that of His incarnations like Rama, Nrsimadeva, Kalki, Vamanadeva, and so on, but nowhere is the celebration of His disappearance day described in sastra. There are many reasons for this. We observe the appearance and disappearance days of Gurudeva and Vaisnavas. On the appearance day of Gurudeva we perform Vyasa-puja, because Gurudeva is a manifestation of Shrila Vyasadeva, the literary incarnation of Krishna. We also observe the birthday of Vyasadeva. We observe the appearance and disappearance days of Shrila Rupa Gosvami and the acaryas in his disciplic succession, but never the disappearance days of Krishna and His manifestations. When a Vaisnava takes birth, his glory is not manifested. No one knows the glory of that Vaisnava, whereas from the first day of the birth of Krishna and Mahaprabhu, or any manifestation of Krishna, their glory is known. Regarding Vaisnavas, for example, when Parama-pujyapada Shrila Bhaktivedanta Svami Maharaja was born, his glory was not seen. When he took sannyasa, very little was seen. After his taking sannyasa, he preached throughout the world, and at that time his glory was somewhat seen. Then, after his disappearance it became known – Oh, how glorious he is – and we can remember his glory. In this way, a Vaisnava's and Guru's disappearance day is more essential and glorious than his appearance day. This day is more important because we can consider so many aspects of his glory, and we can remember all his pastimes. As today is the disappearance day of our Guru Maharaja, today I am remembering the entirety of his pastimes, from the beginning – how he preached to the entire world, how he was most dear to his Gurudeva, and how he gave his everything, never keeping anything for himself. Out of love, his Gurudeva used to call him dokla. Dokla means 'very foolish,' meaning that he was never thinking of himself but always thinking of his Gurudeva. Spiritually, it does not really mean 'foolish;' it really means 'not thinking of oneself.' He never kept even one paisa for himself. In turn, Guru Maharaja used to call his Gurudeva bokar-jahaj. [Jahaj means 'ship,' and bokar means 'foolish.' As a ship is full of varied cargo, bokar-jahaj means 'a brain full of foolishness.'] Why did he call Shrila Prabhupada boka-jahaj? It was because Prabhupada had so much love and affection. He never did anything for himself; never. He gave his whole self to his own Gurudeva and to his disciples. With this quality of his being bokar-jahaj, he showered his full mercy upon my Guru Maharaja, who is now very easily worshipped throughout the world. Whereas my Gurudeva never kept a paisa for himself, nowadays disciples are very 'wise.' It is rare that someone will have nothing in their pocket, for nowadays all are very intelligent – with one, two, three, or four pockets. Actually, this is real foolishness; it is most bokar. Those who keep things for themselves cannot understand guru-seva. [In 1965-8] One of my Gurudeva's friends, Parama-pujyapada Shri Shrimad Bhaktivedanta Svami Maharaja, came to America and made a very good platform for him. Shrila Svami Maharaja told him, "Now you can come, and throughout the world you will be worshipped by sincere devotees." [In 1940], when Gurudeva established Gaudiya Vedanta Samiti in Calcutta, his most intimate friend, Abhaya Caranaravinda prabhu [Shrila Bhaktivedanta Svami Maharaja's name in his previous asrama] was present as the other establisher. Thus, this Gaudiya Vedanta Samiti is also of Shrila Bhaktivedanta Svami Maharaja. He helped established it. [In 1959], Shrila Bhaktivedanta Svami Maharaja took sannyasa here – sitting right here – in Mathura. I was the priest. Krishnadasa Babaji was the kirtaneer, and Sesayai prabhu and others were also singing kirtana. They were witnesses of this ceremony, along with Ranganatha Baba, Kunjabihari prabhu, Padmanabha Maharaja, Muni Maharaja, and many other sannyasis. [In 1968], on the evening of the full moon, we were performing kirtana – all varieties of kirtana. Especially, I was singing, "O he Vaisnava Thakura," Gauranga Bolite Habe," "Hari Haraya Nama Krishna Yadavaya Namah," "Jaya Radhe Jaya Krishna, Jaya Vrindavan," and all kinds of prayers. We performed guru-vandana and Vaisnava-vandana, and Gurudeva was hearing. When we saw that he was about to leave this world, we began to chant, "Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare, Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare." While we were singing kirtana, we kept his photo of his Gurudeva and Radha-Krishna and Mahaprabhu in front of him, and he was uttering, "Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare..." All began to weep. In the meantime, as the pujari was performing sandhya-arati, the garland of Radhika or Krishna fell down, and, weeping, he ran to us and we gave the garland to Gurudeva. Pujyapada Shri Rupa Siddhanti Maharaja and others were called, and together we gave samadhi to Gurudeva throughout the night. Then, throughout the morning, we remembered and glorified his pastimes – how he served Radha-Krishna, Mahaprabhu, Nityananda Prabhu, and his Gurudeva. What is the meaning of the word viraha (generally understood as 'separation')? Our Gurudeva used to explain its significance. 'Vi' means 'in a special way,' and 'raha' means 'meeting.' Thus, viraha means 'meeting internally, in a special way, by prema. For example, Shrimati Radhika and the gopis used to meet with Krishna in Vrindavan when He was in Mathura. They were always thinking, and thinking, and thinking of Him; totally absorbed. Krishna used to directly manifest in Vrindavan and meet with them. They would think that they were seeing Him in a dream or a spurti (vision), but actually He had come to them. In the Gambira, Mahaprabhu was full with the intrinsic mood of Radha and, in viraha, was always totally absorbed in the pastimes of Krishna. Whatever ideas I am now expressing have all come from my Gurudeva. He used to explain so much about viraha. I want to publish a Vaisnava literature describing the glory of the Vaisnava viraha (the real mood of separation from exalted Vaisnavas). The glory of viraha, separation, is that meeting is present within it. Such separation is not a bad thing. There is no unhappiness in such separation, as revealed in the separation pastimes of Sita devi and Shri Ramacandra. Their pastimes are full of hardships, wherein Rama was always immersed in feelings of separation from Sita. Rama sent Sita out from His kingdom, and Laksmana took Her to Valmiki's asrama. Just before Rama's pastimes were to come to an end in this world, He called for her. Valmiki then brought her and her two sons to Rama's assembly. Hundreds of thousands of Ayodhya residents were assembled there, including Rama's mothers Kausalya, Sumitra, and Kaikeyi. Valmiki was walking in front. Sita's head was lowered, as she held the hands of her sons Lava and Kusa in her own hands and walked into the silent, awe-filled assembly. Rama gave a signal to give Sita a place to sit, after which she and Luv and Kusa sat down along with Valmiki. Lord Rama announced, "I know that Sitaji is pure. I know that there is not a black spot on her. I have no doubt. I am a King and I must maintain My dharma, so I had to send the Queen out of the kingdom – but I always kept Sita in my heart. My desire is that, In front of everybody, let her purity be established." When Sita heard this, she stood up, folded her palms, and declared, "Is proof still needed? All right, I will give You proof." Then, she said three times," O Prthvi devi (Mother Earth), If I am pure, please open yourself and take me in your lap. If I have never touched any other man but Rama – even in my mind or heart, then open yourself and take me into your lap. If in my helpless condition someone touched my body, I cannot say anything about that; but of in my mind I have not given any place to anyone but Rama, O, Prthvi devi, please open up." In this way, Sita devi prayed three times to Mother Earth. At that moment Mother Earth, Prthvi devi, rose from the now opened earth on a golden chariot and took Sita in her lap – and then they both disappeared into the earth. Lava and Kusa began to weep for their mother, all the queens wept, all the people wept, and Rama also wept. Rama took his bow and arrow and exclaimed, "O Prthvi devi, O Mother, remember that I punished the ocean. Retrun my Sita, otherwise I will punish you as well, by breaking you in pieces." Valmiki then approached Rama and said, "The time has come. I have not written beyond this point] Please be peaceful. It is Your time to go. Sita went first [Rama's potency, Sita devi, set the platform for Him to leave His Earthly pastimes], and now You must also go." When people come to a theatre and watch a drama of these pastimes, they bitterly weep. On the next day the same drama takes place again, and still more people come than on the first day. If crying is so painful, why do more people come on the following day? And why do the same people come back to cry? It is because in this crying, there is a special kind of pleasure. If a person does not have in his heart this kind of separation mood for his guru, that person's heart is like a thunderbolt. He does not even have a trace of bhakti in his heart. Guru-nistha is the backbone of all bhakti, and without guru-nistha, a person is devoid of any kind of bhakti. His heart is zero. Guru Maharaja always served his Gurudeva with his life and soul. For the pleasure of his Gurudeva, he was willing to jump in the ocean or the fire. Shrila Prabhupada Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura was once doing Navadvipa parikrama along with thousands of pilgrims. On the third day he came to Navadvipa town, in front of the Praudha Maya temple, which was surrounded by a big population. All the so-called brahmanas and caste Gosvamis there were in opposition to Shrila Prabhupada, because they felt he thought himself superior to brahmanas. They made a conspiracy saying, "We will punish and kill him. About a thousand of these brahmanas took sticks, bricks, stones, soda water and hot water; and they threw these from all the houses. This was reported to the police, but the police were silent; they were favoring the caste brahmanas. There was no way to escape. Shrila Prabhupada was alone; all his senior disciples had fled. One brahmacari was with him – in white cloth, not saffron. He at once signalled to Shrila Prabhupada and they both approached a house. He begged the householders, "O, please open the door. We want to stay for a moment. He immediately gave Shrila Prabhupada his own white clothes, and took his sannyasi clothes and danda. In this way he actually took sannyasa there, and then he somehow sent Shrila Prabhupada, in white cloth, to Mayapura. My Gurudeva, Shrila Bhakti Prajnana Keshava Gosvami Maharaja, was beautiful like Prabhupada, and therefore he was able to take Prabhupada's sannyasa danda, sannyasa cloths, and chaddar. He gave his life to save his own Gurudeva. Prabhupada loved him so much, and made him most dear. Gurudeva's disappearance day in Kartik month took place on Saradiya-rasa. What can I say of the glories of this month; you should know its glories. Shrimati Radhika is called Urjesvari (the Mistress of all power), and this entire month is called Urja month. Urja means power, or sakti. Krishna can only wish, but He cannot do anything to fulfil His wish. He depends on Shrimati Radhika for everything. He can wish, and She can fulfil. Do not think Krishna lifted Govardhana Hill. Shrimati Radhika lifted it. Krishna can only desire to do whatever He wants to do; that is why Shrimati Radhika is Urjesvari. As stated in the brahma-gayatri mantra, "savitur varenyam." Urja-sakti is the source of the light of the sun; the sun's light comes from Radhaji. Radhika is varanyam. She is worshipful by the Sun, who gives heat and light. The brahma-gayatri mantra concludes with the words "Diyo yo na pracodayat." We meditate on Shrimati Radhika and pray that She will come in our heart. We pray that She will manifest Her beauty, so that we can see how beautiful She is. Another meaning of urja is bhakti, or prema. Prema, the purest love for Shri Krishna, comes from the heart of Radhika, not from Krishna. He is the taster. He is the relisher of love and affection, but that love and affection comes from Radhika's heart. She gives urja, the power of prema, love and affection, to all, even to Krishna. Krishna cannot exist, or remain alive, without Her. Without Her He would be nirvisesa-brahma (the formless and qualitiless spirit whole). This is why Radhaji is Urjesvari. Without worshipping Her, we cannot achieve Krishna. Because Radhika is the predominating Deity of Kartika month, She is also called Damodari. Krishna is Damodara, and Radhika is Damodari. Without Radhika, no one can bind Krishna permanently. Mother Yasoda can bind Him for a day, but Radhika can bind Him forever. During this Kartika month, Krishna lifted Govardhana on the very day of Govardhana puja, just before the full moon day of this month, and Dipavali, the day on which Mother Yasoda bound Her son Krishna, also took place in this month. Dipa means 'light, and real light manifests in the form of bhakti-tattva (the established truths of pure devotional service), krsna-tattva (the established truths about the Supreme Lord Shri Krishna), maya-tattva (the truth of this deluding material world), jiva-tattva (the truth of the eternal spirit soul) – all this knowledge is 'light.' Knowledge of all these tattvas comes from Shrimati Radhika. Shri Krishna left the rasa dance on this day, in this month. Thus feeling great separation from Him, the gopis sang their Gopi-gita. In this month they also sang their Venu-gita, and some of their verses (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.21.1,5,9) are as follows: sri-suka uvaca ittham sarat-svaccha-jalam padmakara-sugandhina nyavisad vayuna vatam sa -go-gopalako 'cyutah ["Sukadeva Gosvami said: Thus the Vrindavan forest was filled with transparent autumnal waters and cooled by breezes perfumed with the fragrance of lotus flowers growing in the clear lakes. The infallible Lord, accompanied by His cows and cowherd boyfriends, entered that Vrindavan forest."] barhapidam nata-vara-vapuh karnayoh karnikaram bibhrad vasah kanaka-kapisam vaijayantim ca malam randhran venor adhara-sudhayapurayan gopa-vrndair vrndaranyam sva-pada-ramanam pravisad gita-kirtih ["Wearing a peacock-feather ornament upon His head, blue karnikara flowers on His ears, a yellow garment as brilliant as gold, and the Vaijayanti garland, Lord Krishna exhibited His transcendental form as the greatest of dancers as He entered the forest of Vrindavan, beautifying it with the marks of His footprints. He filled the holes of His flute with the nectar of His lips, and the cowherd boys sang His glories."] gopyah kim acarad ayam kusalam sma venur damodaradhara-sudham api gopikanam bhunkte svayam yad avasista-rasam hradinyo hrsyat-tvaco 'sru mumucus taravo yatharyah ["My dear gopis, what auspicious activities must the flute have performed to enjoy the nectar of Krishna's lips independently and leave only a taste for us gopis, for whom that nectar is actually meant! The forefathers of the flute, the bamboo trees, shed tears of pleasure. His mother, the river on whose bank the bamboo was born, feels jubilation, and therefore her blooming lotus flowers are standing like hair on her body.'] In this month, although child Krishna was tied to his mother's grinding mortar, He gave mukti, meaning bhakti, to Nalakuvera and Manigriva. As stated in Shri Damodarastakam, He not only delivered them, but He gave them positions as singers – Madhu-kanta and Snigda-kanta – in His own assemblies in Goloka Vrindavan. kuveratmajau baddha-murtyaiva yadvat tvaya mocitau bhakti-bhajau krtau ca tatha prema-bhaktim svakam me prayaccha na mokse graho me 'sti damodareha ["O Lord Damodara, just as the two sons of Kuvera –Manigriva and Nalakuvara – were delivered from the curse of Narada and made into great devotees by You in Your form as a baby tied with rope to a wooden grinding mortar, in the same way, please give to me Your own prema-bhakti. I only long for this and have no desire for any kind of liberation."] In this month, along with His associates the Vrajavasis, Shri Krishna performed worship of the cows and calves (go-puja), brahmanas, and Govardhana Hill. In this month they performed Govardhana parikrama. Then, when Indra created torrential rains to destroy Vrindavan, Krishna lifted Govardhana Hill, which was a trick to bring the gopis in purva-raga close to Him. Krishna was thinking that all the gopis should come nearer. Mother Yasoda and Nanda Baba were also present there, but on that day the young gopis were not at all shy at all; they felt no shame. This was the first day the gopis came so near to Krishna. Krishna thus broke the pride of Indra. Indra then performed abhiseka of Krishna and gave Him the name Govinda. Govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami. [All the devotees sang this song along with Shrila Gurudeva, who, after a couple of moments said...] In this way. [Shrila Gurudeva now led the devotees in singing the verse in the same tune as sung in the ISKCON temples, and then said...] We remembered Svamiji. In this month Saradiya-rasa took place, but it did not last for only one month. Even Krishna Himself could not conceive how long it lasted, nor could the Gopis. Only Yogamaya knew. The moon stopped in one place, not moving at all, and the sun stayed on the opposite side of the rasa. If the sun had made its presence there would not have been rasa, so the sun also stopped in one place. All these pastimes were performed in the month of Kartika . In this way, this month is very high. In the evening, at 4pm, we will all sit here and glorify My Guru Maharaja's contribution to the world. Now we will go to the Yamuna to make our vows (sankalpa) and offer our prayers that our parikrama will be successful and our desires will be fulfilled. Jamuna is Krishna's associate, Visakha-devi. You should all be ready and come. When we reach Vrindavan we will take vow again, at Kesi-ghat. [Endnote from the editors: For clarity, we have added some details regarding Shrila Bhakti Prajnana Keshava Gosvami's Maharaja's changing cloths with Shrila Prabhupada (from Shrila Gurudeva's "Secret Truths of the Bhagavatam" p. 145-146)]
  4. The following is an excerpt of Shrila Gurudeva's beautiful lecture on Verse Seven of Vilap-kusumanjali. Shrila Gurudeva teaches the process of attaining the lotus feet of Shrimati Radhika through bhajana filled with moods of separation. At the beginning of this excerpt, he explains that our success in such bhajana depends on our feelings of gratitude and separation from Shri Guru. Tridandisvami Shri Shrimad Bhaktivedanta Narayana Gosvami Maharaja October 20th & 21st, 1991 There are two kinds of bhajana. The first is in vipralambha-lila, and that is performed by chanting and remembering the pastimes of separation. The second is in sambhoga-lila, and it is performed by remembering the pastimes of meeting. Although the gopis and Vrajavasis always like to meet with Krishna, He plays in such a manner that they will enjoy vipralambha-rasa. The sadhaka cultivates vipralambha-bhava, thinking, "I am not seeing Krishna, I am not seeing Shrimati Radhika, I am not seeing Vraja, I am not seeing anything!" He should always feel separation, as Raghunatha dasa Gosvami has shown here – separation from Krishna and especially from Shrimati Radhika. In many verses, Shrila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami has also lamented in separation from Shrila Rupa Gosvami. At the time of Rupa Gosvami's entrance into aprakata-lila, the un-manifest pastimes, he composed this verse: sunyayate maha-gostham girindro 'jagarayate vyaghra-tundayate kundam jivatu-rahitasya me ["Now that I no longer have the sustainer of my life, the land of Vraja has become empty and desolate, Govardhana Hill has become like a great python, and Radha Kunda has become like the gaping mouth of a ferocious tigress."] He has also lamented in separation for his siksa-gurus, thinking, "I'm so unlucky. First Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu departed from this world and left me behind. Afterwards I lived constantly with Shri Svarupa Damodara, and he also left. Next I caught hold of the lotus feet of Shri Gadadhara Pandita, but he also departed. Then, experiencing that every place and every dust particle of Jagannatha Puri reminded me of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Svarupa Damodara, Gadadhara Pandita, and all their associates, I fled to Vrndavana." Although our Gurudeva has also entered his aprakata-lila, we remain in this world in a very pleasant manner. On special days, like his avirbhava, appearance day, and tirobhava, disappearance day, the occasion comes that we may remember him. At that time, however, we are involved in arranging the festival, and there is very little chance to realize that separation. Only while we are speaking something about him, a drop of tear may come in our eye – and it may not come. If the festival is very elaborate, there will be no tears. So many functions must be managed, such as the abhiseka, puja, and distribution of maha-prasadam to Vaisnavas. We arrange these festivals mainly for the people in general, for those who have no intimate relation with him. But we should do something so that a feeling of separation will come within our own hearts, and that is called bhajana. Only those special persons who have realized their immense obligation and indebtedness to Gurudeva for all they have received, and who have rendered abundant service to him with visrambha-bhava, a mood of intimacy, will feel separation. They will weep. Such devotees will not consider, "I'm so low and my Gurudeva is in such a high stage." Awe and reverence will not preside; otherwise one cannot weep. Sastra states, visrambhena guror seva – the sevaka performs such intimate service to Gurudeva that Gurudeva remains always pleased with him. The guru will not consider for even a moment that, "He is my servant and disciple." Instead he will feel, "He is my near and dear. He is my heart." Shri Isvara Puripada, the disciple of Shrila Madhavendra Puri, and Govinda, the disciple of Shri Isvara Puri, were servants of this caliber. Although this is a rare relationship, it is absolutely necessary for raganuga-bhakti. Without a relationship like this, we cannot weep like Shrila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami. Separation from Gurudeva will be experienced on different levels. When we consider how merciful he was and how much greater he is than ourselves, we feel a certain type of sentiment. However, when we remember how near and dear he was and how much he loved us, then we will weep profusely for him. The gopis can weep so much more than Nanda Baba. Yasoda Ma can also weep more than Nanda Baba, but the gopis can weep even more than Yasoda because their relationship with Krishna is more intimate. We should have this kind of relationship with Shri Krishna, Shrimati Radhika, and also with our Gurudeva, Shri Rupa Manjari, Shrila Rupa Gosvami, and all others like them. Then we can weep for their mercy. If we have yet to develop an intimate service relationship with our Gurudeva, then surely we cannot imagine our relationship with Shri Rupa-manjari or Shrimati Radhika and Krishna. Our entire advancement depends upon on how keen intensely we serve our Gurudeva; all other relationships and experiences develop on that platform. If we can weep for Gurudeva, we can weep for Shrimati Radhika. If we cannot weep for our Gurudeva we cannot weep for Her. That is my experience. Whatever we know, we know from Gurudeva, and therefore we must weep in our hearts for him. In the first verse of Vilapa-kusumanjali, Raghunatha dasa Gosvami prayed to Shri Rupa-manjari. tvam rupa-manjari sakhi prathita pure 'smin pumsah parasya vadanam na hi pasyasiti bimbadhare ksatam anagata-bhartrkaya yat te vayadhayi kim u tac chuka-pungavena ["My dear friend Rupa-manjari, you are well known in Vraja for your chastity and you don't even look at the faces of other men. It is therefore surprising that although your husband is not at home, your lips, which are as beautiful as red bimba fruits, have been bitten. Has this perhaps been done by the best of parrots?"] Was Raghunatha dasa Gosvami weeping or laughing? It may seem that he wrote this verse in a laughing, pleasant mood. In actuality, however, he was remembering a previous pastime and weeping at the lotus feet of Shri Rupa-manjari, "You were so merciful to me. I remember seeing your mood after Krishna kissed you and left a mark on your lips. When will I see you in that condition again?" In the second verse, beginning, "Sthala-kamalini yuktam garvita," he again offers pranama and weeps, "Will I see this again?" These first two verses are very important. Now, in this seventh verse he cries, "Svamini ksanam iha pranayena gadham – Will it be possible for me to weep for You for even a moment? If my realization was complete, I would weep constantly." How shall we come to the platform that we are able to weep? Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu has given instructions the sixth verse of Shri Siksastakam: nayanam galad-asru-dharaya vadanam gadgada-ruddhaya gira pulakair nicitam vapuh kada, tava nama-grahane bhavisyati ["O Prabhu! When will my eyes be filled with a stream of tears? When will my voice choke up? And when will the hairs of my body stand erect in ecstasy as I chant Your holy names?"] Although kim, meaning 'when,' is not present in this seventh verse, we need to include it, with this mood: "When will I feel so much lamentation that I will weep while chanting the names Hare Krishna, Radha-Govinda, or Vrndavanesvari?" Weeping is our dharma, the essence of our religious principles. In this verse Shrila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami says, "aty-utkatena nitaram virahanalena – my heart is burning in the great fire of separation." He sincerely feels this sentiment; and by his grace, and also by the grace of our Gurudeva and the guru-parampara, we will also realize something of this one day. This is our real prayer. When we pray and sing this verse, this will be our mood: "Tava nama-grahane bhavisyati – when, by chanting harinama, remembering, and listening, will I weep?" Those who are very fortunate can lament, weep, and realize the heart of this the author. Akrandhanena vidhura vilapami padyaih. Raghunatha dasa Gosvami is praying, "O Shrimati Radhika, now I want to offer some flowers to Your lotus feet." These flowers are songs about the pastimes he has realized and heard about from Rupa Gosvami and others. He has composed Shri Vilapa-kusumanjali in the mood of a sadhaka, for the benefit of sadhakas, and Shrila Narottama dasa Thakura prays in a similar way in his Prarthana: hari hari are ki emana dasa haba chadiya purusa-deha kabe ba prakrti haba dunhu ange candana paraba (Song 13, text 1) ["When, relinquishing this male material body and obtaining the spiritual body of a gopi, will I anoint the limbs of the Divine Couple with sandalwood paste? O Lord Hari, Lord Hari, when will this day be mine?"] "O Hari, will the day come when, even for a moment, my male ego will go far away and I will obtain the form of a gopi? May I have a chance for that mood? Dunhu ange candana paraba. Lalita will give an order and Visakha will pass the order to Rupa Manjari: 'Krishna always likes to see very new sakhis, and you have collected some. Please send one new sakhi to Radhika and Krishna to bring some candana, kunkuma, and aguru.' These unguents are so fragrant, beautiful, soft, and cooling. I will take them and anoint the limbs of Shri Radha and Krishna, always looking towards my guru-sakhi and Rupa Manjari to see whether or not I am doing it correctly. Shrimati Radhika and Krishna will enjoy seeing this. Because I am a new sakhi, I may do something wrong. Seeing my mistake, They will laugh and become very much pleased." taniya bandhibo cuda nava gunja -hare beda nana phule ganthi diba hara (Song 13, text 2) ["When will I arrange the hair of the Divine Couple? When will I give Them gunja-necklaces and garlands strung with various flowers?"] Shrila Narottama dasa Thakura, in the form of a manjari, is seeing that Radhika's and Krishna's hair is untied and disheveled. He says, "Then, from the corner of her eyes, Rupa-manjari will indicate to me that I should comb Their hair. First I will comb Shrimati Radhika's hair, and then Shri Krishna's also. Radhika will grimace as if my combing is causing Her some pain, and Rupa-manjari will say, 'What are you doing? Please comb in a very gentle manner.' Then, taking the comb from my hand, she will teach me how to do it properly." This is the duty of guru. "Then I will ask her, 'May I do it now?' With her permission, I will try again. After Her hair has been combed, braided, and tied, Shrimati Radhika will be decorated with fragrant flowers like beli, cameli, and juhi. Nava gunja-hare beda. A beautiful garland of gunja will be offered to both Shri Krishna and Her. Nana phule ganthi diba hara. By gathering seven or eight differently colored flowers, I will string a vaijayanti-mala or vana-mala (garland of forest flowers). I will also place some flowers in Her braid in a very fine, artistic fashion." When Shri Krishna is offered a garland, He always knows who has made it, especially if it was made by Shrimati Radhika. Similarly, if He makes a garland and someone else gives it to Radhika, She can immediately feel that it had been made by Him. pita-vasana ange paraibo sakhi-sange badane tambula diba ara (Song 13, text 2) ["When will I give Them yellow garments? When, accompanied by the other gopis, will I place betel-nuts in Their lotus mouths?"] Shri Krishna Bhagavan is syama, cloud-colored, and His cloth is pita, yellow. Sakhi-sange means that Shrila Narottama dasa Thakura in his gopi form is taking the help and instructions of her guru-sakhi, Rupa-manjari and all others like them. "Because I am new, I am taking their help and they are teaching me. After giving Shrimati Radhika garlands and clothes, I will decorate Her ears, braid and forehead with flower ornaments." dunhu rupa manohari deribo nayana bhari nilambare rai sajaiya nava-ratna-jari ani bandhiba vicitra beni tate phula malati ganthiya (Song 13, text 3) ["When will I gaze at the beautiful forms of the Divine Couple? When will I dress Shrimati Radhika in blue garments, and decorate Her braided hair with garlands of jasmine flowers and strings of nine different kinds of jewels on a golden thread?"] "I will then place kasturi-bindu, a musk dot, on Shrimati Radhika's chin, and draw makara (dolphins) on Her cheeks. After this is completed, I will hand Her and Krishna a mirror. From the side, I will observe Their forms and think, 'How beautiful They are!' Nilambare rai sajaiya, I will dress Shrimati Radhika in nilambara, blue cloth, the color of Krishna. She will wear a red lahanga, skirt, and Her very fine, almost transparent veil will be blue. Nava-ratna-jari ani bandhiba vicitra beni tate phula malati ganthiya. I will place many beautiful jewels in Her hair, and decorate Her braid with garlands of malati flowers." sei rupa- madhuri dekhiba nayana bhari ei kari mane abhilasa jaya jaya rupa sanatana deha more ei dhana nivedaye narottama dasa (Song 13, text 4) ["My desire is that some day I shall be able to directly see the sweet beauty of the transcendental forms of the Divine Couple. O Shrila Rupa Gosvami and Shrila Sanatana Gosvami, all glories to you both. Please bestow this treasure upon me. Please grant my desire. Narottama dasa appeals to you in this way."] In his sadhakavesa, Shrila Narottama dasa Thakura prays to Rupa Gosvami and Sanatana Gosvami, not to the sakhis. In his svarupa as Vilasa Manjari, he will pray to Shri Rupa Manjari, Shri Lavanga Manjari, Shri Rati Manjari, and other sakhis. "When will I serve in this way?" When we read these prayers, some 'coating' will certainly come in our hearts. It will be a coating only, but it will act and create our samskaras, impressions on the heart. Shrila Bilvamangala Thakura has written in a somewhat different mood in his Shri Krishna-karnamrta (text 63): kadanu kasyam nu vipadasayam kaisoragandhih karunambudhirnah vilochanabhyam vipula yatabhyam alokayishyanvishayikaroti ["When will Krishna, the ocean of mercy in His fresh youth, under some unknown circumstances, again look at us with His wide eyes and accept us within His purview?"] A similar desire has been expressed here. The author, Shrila Bilvamangala Thakura, was a bhavuka bhakta – not siddha, but bhavuka (in the stage of bhava-bhakti) – and also rasika. He has received something in his heart from ragatmika-jana, those devotees situated in prema-bhakti, so he is bhavuka. He is krsna-paksa and krsna-virahit. He is inclined towards Shri Krishna, and thus he expresses separation from Krishna, not Radhika. He has written all the verses in Krishna-karnamrta with some connection to Shrimati Radhika, however, because he also has some taste for Her service. Krishna does not want to listen to any prayers that are devoid of a connection with Shrimati Radhika and the gopis. If He hears, "I am being served by Radhika" or "I am serving Radhika," He becomes so pleased. In the first verse of Shri Krishna-karnamrta, Shrila Bilvamangala Thakura has used the word jayaShri: cintamanir jayati somagirir gurur me siksa-gurus ca bhagavan sikhi-pincha-maulih yat-pada-kalpataru-pallava-sekharesu lila-svayamvara-rasam labhate jayasrih ["Shri Krishna is so beautiful. His mouth, eyes, nose, hands, and all parts of His transcendental form are beautiful." Although His feet are not as beautiful as His face, in the beginning Shrila Bilvamangala Öhakura has only described the beauty of His feet: "His feet are like lotuses and His toes are like lotus petals. To the rays emanating from the tips of His toenails, Shrimati Radhika is offering arati."] We Gaudiya Vaisnavas do not want to hear statements like this. For those with the same mood as Bilvamangala Thakura, this verse is very beautiful, undoubtedly, but we would be more interested and pleased if he had written that Shri Krishna is offering arati to Shrimati Radhika. Instead, he writes that She is offering arati, and She is so pleased – feeling as if She is choosing Her husband and giving Him a garland when They first meet. Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was in the mood of Shrimati Radhika, and therefore He relished Shri Krishna-karnamrta. But we should try to see what Shrila Rupa Gosvami, Shrila Svarupa Damodara and Shrila Raya Ramananda have told – not what Shrimati Radhika or Krishna have told. Our goal is to perform service like the manjaris, or like the sakhis – not like Radhika. Radhika always wants to hear Krishna's name and He wants to hear Her name, but we must follow in the proper channel. Shrila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami has written Vilapa-kusumanjali for Shrimati Radhika, not for Krishna, and in Shri Sankalpa-kalpadruma (text one) Shrila Visvanatha Cakravarti Öhakura also prays to Her: vrndavanesvari vayo-guna-rupa-lila saubhagya-keli-karuna-jaladhe 'radhehi dasi-bhavani sukha yani sada sa- kantam tvam alibhih parivrtam idam eva yace" ["O Queen of Vrndavana, O great ocean of mercy, playfulness, good fortune, transcendental pastimes, beauty, virtue, and youthfulness; please hear my prayer. Let me be Your maidservant. I will always please You, who stay with Your lover and Your friends. I beg this of You."] In his own Shri Sankalpa-kalpadruma, Shrila Jiva Gosvami has also prayed to Shrimati Radhika, and all our Gosvamis have done the same. This is the speciality of our sampradaya; we follow this path. When we pray to Shrimati Radhika, somehow Krishna Himself will come, in a hidden way, and try to hear. In this seventh verse, Shrila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami uses the word ha, meaning 'alas,' and laments, "He karuna-sagara, O ocean of mercy, please see how miserable I am because I am not getting darsana of and Vrndavana, harinama, and You." He has great utkanöha, eagerness. He has heard about Shrimati Radhika's glories – Her qualities, Her movements, and the sweetness of Her mercy – and he therefore has become unmada, maddened. Unmada refers to doing something that is considered wrong by ordinary standards. That which is right we can do, and that is our natural position. However, when we lose that thinking and do anything which is not to be done, that is called unmada. One should not sit on Krishna's shoulders, but the gopis can do so in unmada. They can order Him about as they desire. When Krishna left them during rasa-lila, they were thinking about His movements and and qualities. By such continuous thinking they became maddened and began to imitate Him. Each and every gopi thought, "I alone am Krishna, and all the gopis are all my beloveds." In his Shri Ananda-vrndavana-campu, Shrila Kavi Karnapura explains how it happened that each gopi thought herself to be Krishna and saw the others as Putana, Aghasura, or Bakasura. One's attachment is never directed to something in which one has no taste. One will only develop attachment and tadatma-bhava, feelings of oneness, to that which is favorable and in which one has taste. The gopis cannot be attached to Putana, and therefore, because Putana is unfavorable to the gopis' bhava, it is not possible for them to become unmada and feel oneness with her. They are only attached to Krishna's activities. In re-enacting Putana-lila, it appears that one gopi threw down another, climbed upon her breast, and took the breast of that other gopi in her mouth. However, Shrila Kavi Karnapura explains that where it seems that a gopi is lying down as Putana, that gopi is not present there. Because they will not accept the mood of Putana, those gopis acting as Putana and other demons were created artificially by Yogamaya. This is a very important truth to understand, and it is difficult to understand simply by reading the descriptions of this pastime in Shrimad-Bhagavatam. When something unfavorable to the gopis is required in a lila, Yogamaya makes the arrangements. She is doing everything; She is helping them, and thus they are thinking, "I'm Krishna," "I'm Krishna," "I'm Krishna," and performing all the lilas. When they heard Shri Krishna's flute-song and thus left their houses and husbands in the dead of night, the real gopis came to Him and Yogamaya expanded duplicate gopis to stand by the side of their husbands. This was likewise the case here. All the gopis who played the parts of Putana, Aghasura, Bakasura, Kaliya, and so on were imitations created by Yogamaya. Shrila Kavi Karnapura has revealed something else about this rasa-lila. When the gopis were imitating Krishna, He Himself had entered their hearts and was the actual performer of His own pastimes – as mentioned earlier with reference to the fire entering and acting through the iron in tadatma-bhava. The gopis were thinking, "We are doing this," but actually Krishna was acting. Here there was no action of Yogamaya. Krishna Himself was doing everything. Shrila Visvanatha Cakravarti Öhakura has made a similar point in this connection. When Krishna entered the gopi's hearts, His six opulences – aisvarya (wealth), virya (strength), yasasa (fame), Shri (beauty), jnana (knowledge), and vairagya (renunciation) – fully manifested in them. Because He was present there, everything was present there. Although they were merely imitating His pastimes, because He was present they had the power to lift Govardhana Hill and dance on the heads of Kaliya. If Govardhana were situated there, they could certainly have lifted him. The reverse is also true. If the gopis are in Bhagavan Shri Krishna, He can act, otherwise He cannot. His abilities are the effect of the gopis' sakti, or power. They are His svarupa-sakti, and therefore whatever He does is actually done by them. Every quality and every power in Him is theirs. They don't reveal this, however, otherwise the pastimes cannot continue. Shrimati Yasoda maiya can do every¬thing; the sakhas can kill millions of Kamsas, Aghasu¬ras, Bakasuras, and all others, but they do not exercise their power – and this is also true for the gopis. When the demon Sankhacuda once abducted Shrimati Radhika and the gopis, they began to cry. Why were they crying? This was nara-lila. If they wanted to exercise their power they could have done so. They have all qualities – everything that Krishna has. In fact, they have more than He has. They can defeat Him and they can control Him. Especially, Shrimati Radhika is more beautiful than Him, and more powerful. Once, when Shri Krishna wanted to wrestle with Radhika, She challenged Him, "You can come. We will see who is defeated and who is winner." She tied up Her clothes and became ready to fight. Krishna came forward and She defeated Him, and all the gopis applauded. She had taken away all of His power and He had become weak. Govardhana thought that Krishna had lifted him, but actually Shrimati Radhika had done so – because She is Krishna's power. Krishna is guru of the entire world, but His prema-guru is Radhika. He also learns from Lalita, Visakha, Citra and so on, but especially from Lalita. Krishna is so great, and it is only by prema that He is defeated. He is advaya-jnana, para-tattva. Shrimad-Bhagavatam states: vadanti tat tattva-vidas tattvam yaj jnanam advayam (Shrimad-Bhagavatam, 1.2.11). Everything is in Krishna, but still He shows that, "I am defeated by the gopis;" and He also admits this. Returning to our original point, when praying, uttering, or chanting harinama, or when remembering harinama, we must realize some vipralambha-bhava. If we have no mood of separation, we will have to gradually develop this bhava through the execution of sadhana-bhakti. By reading about these pastimes something will enter our hearts, and someday we will experience them all. Realization also comes by remembering Shri Gurudeva. We should always remember him, and also Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. If we do not understand the mercy of Gurudeva, we cannot understand anything. If you are receiving something new from me, you can also remember me. Lobha-mula sadhana-bhajana. Lobha-mula means greed for raga-bhakti, and our sadhana-bhajana becomes perfect by being mixed or enriched with this. Shrila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami continually weeps, but we do not shed even one teardrop; we are dry. Shrila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami has called out to Radhika, "Ha svamini, O my Svamini." This use of the word Svamini indicates his sweet relationship with Her. He has also written in Shri Manah-siksa: madisa-nathatve vraja-vipina-candram vraja-vane- svarim tam-nathatve tad-atula-sakhitve tu lalitam visakham siksali-vitarana-gurutve priya-saro- girindrau tat-preksa-lalita-rati-datve smara manah He prays here, "O Shrimati Radhika, You are my supreme worshipful Deity. You are my natha." Natha means svamini, or mistress. "If anyone asks me who Shri Krishna is, I will only say that He is the prananatha, the lord of the life-breath, of my mistress Shrimati Radhika." Our mistress is Shrimati Radhika and He is Her prananatha. He is therefore worshipable by us, but She is our main worshipful Deity. Our relationship with Him is through Her. Shrimati Lalita devi is very near and dear Her, and therefore she is also worshipable by us. Shrimati Visakha, born on the same day as Her, is named after Her and is no less qualified. Lalita is also known as Anuradha, and Visakha is also known as Radha. They only have honor and appreciation for something or someone if there is relation to Shrimati Radhika; we want to be like this as well. We want only to see whether something is related to Her or not. Suppose a certain girl is coming from Nandagaon and another is coming from either Javata or Varsana. We will prefer the one from Javata, because she is coming from Shrimati Radhika and the other is coming from Krishna. We will first inquire about Radhika, then Krishna. A rupanuga-bhakta will always give preference to Her. Shrila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami prays later on in Vilapa-kusumanjali, "I am lying on the bank of Your Radha-kunda, taking nothing to eat or drink, and always weeping and chanting, 'Radhe! Radhe!' I think that someday or other You will have to give me Your mercy. If You don't, then I have no need of Krishna's mercy, Radha-kunda's mercy, or any others' mercy. I will also no longer want to live." In this way, he weeps. Shrila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura Prabhupada has written that sambhoga and vipralambha, meeting and separation, stand side by side eternally, forever, for endless time. Only a person who has some realization of vipralambha can taste and enjoy sambhoga-lila. One who has no taste of vipralamba cannot do so. The main object and ultimate goal of our sadhana-bhajana is to realize vipralambha-bhava. If this is achieved, we can realize everything else.